This section is for people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and their families and friends. It provides information about AMD and answers questions about its causes and symptoms. Diagnosis and types of treatment are described. The information in this section has been obtained from the NEI website www.nei.nih.gov.
The National Eye Institute (NEI) conducts and supports research that leads to sight-saving treatments and plays a key role in reducing visual impairment and blindness. The NEI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that blurs the sharp, central vision you need for "straight-ahead" activities such as reading, sewing, and driving. AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that allows you to see fine detail. AMD causes no pain.
In some cases, AMD advances so slowly that people notice little change in their vision. In others, the disease progresses faster and may lead to a loss of vision in both eyes. AMD is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 years of age and older.
Wet AMD occurs when abnormal blood vessels behind the retina start to grow under the macula. These new blood vessels tend to be very fragile and often leak blood and fluid. The blood and fluid raise the macula from its normal place at the back of the eye. Damage to the macula occurs rapidly.
With wet AMD, loss of central vision can occur quickly. Wet AMD is considered to be advanced AMD and is more severe than the dry form.
An early symptom of wet AMD is that straight lines appear wavy. If you notice this condition or other changes to your vision, contact your eye care professional at once. You need a comprehensive dilated eye exam.
Dry AMD occurs when the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down, gradually blurring central vision in the affected eye. As dry AMD gets worse, you may see a blurred spot in the center of your vision. Over time, as less of the macula functions, central vision in the affected eye can be lost gradually.
The most common symptom of dry AMD is slightly blurred vision. You may have difficulty recognizing faces. You may need more light for reading and other tasks. Dry AMD generally affects both eyes, but vision can be lost in one eye while the other eye seems unaffected.
One of the most common early signs of dry AMD is drusen. Drusen are yellow deposits under the retina. They often are found in people over age 60. Your eye care professional can detect drusen during a comprehensive dilated eye exam.
Dry AMD has three stages, all of which may occur in one or both eyes:
If you have vision loss from dry AMD in one eye only, you may not notice any changes in your overall vision. With the other eye seeing clearly, you still can drive, read, and see fine details. You may notice changes in your vision only if AMD affects both eyes. If blurriness occurs in your vision, see an eye care professional for a comprehensive dilated eye exam.
The same scene as viewed by a person with age-related macular degeneration
Do drusen cause vision loss in advanced dry AMD?
Drusen alone do not usually cause vision loss. In fact, scientists are unclear about the connection between drusen and AMD. They do know that an increase in the size or number of drusen raises a person's risk of developing either advanced dry AMD or wet AMD. These changes can cause serious vision loss.
The dry form has early and intermediate stages. Does the wet form have similar stages?
No. The wet form is considered advanced AMD.
Can advanced AMD be either the dry form or the wet form?
Yes. Both the wet form and the advanced dry form are considered advanced AMD. Vision loss occurs with either form. In most cases, only advanced AMD can cause vision loss.
People who have advanced AMD in one eye are at especially high risk of developing advanced AMD in the other eye.
Which is more common--the dry form or the wet form?
The dry form is much more common. More than 85 percent of all people with intermediate and advanced AMD combined have the dry form.
However, if only advanced AMD is considered, about two-thirds of patients have the wet form. Because almost all vision loss comes from advanced AMD, the wet form leads to significantly more vision loss than the dry form.
Can the dry form turn into the wet form?
Yes. All people who have the wet form had the dry form first.
The dry form can advance and cause vision loss without turning into the wet form. The dry form also can suddenly turn into the wet form, even during early stage AMD. There is no way to tell if or when the dry form will turn into the wet form.
Who is at risk for AMD?
AMD can occur during middle age. The risk increases with aging. Other risk factors include:
How is AMD detected?
AMD is detected during a comprehensive eye exam that includes:
Your eye care professional also may do other tests to learn more about the structure and health of your eye.
During an eye exam, you may be asked to look at an Amsler grid. The pattern of the grid resembles a checkerboard. You will cover one eye and stare at a black dot in the center of the grid. While staring at the dot, you may notice that the straight lines in the pattern appear wavy. You may notice that some of the lines are missing. These may be signs of AMD. (See Amsler grid.)
If your eye care professional believes you need treatment for wet AMD, he or she may suggest a fluorescein angiogram. In this test, a special dye is injected into your arm. Pictures are taken as the dye passes through the blood vessels in your retina. The test allows your eye care professional to identify any leaking blood vessels and recommend treatment.
How is dry AMD treated?
Once dry AMD reaches the advanced stage, no form of treatment can prevent vision loss. However, treatment can delay and possibly prevent intermediate AMD from progressing to the advanced stage, in which vision loss occurs. The National Eye Institute's Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) found that taking a specific high-dose formulation of antioxidants and zinc significantly reduces the risk of advanced AMD and its associated vision loss. Slowing AMD's progression from the intermediate stage to the advanced stage will save the vision of many people.
What is the dosage of the AREDS formulation?
The specific daily amounts of antioxidants and zinc used by the study researchers were 500 milligrams of vitamin C, 400 International Units of vitamin E, 15 milligrams of beta-carotene (often labeled as equivalent to 25,000 International Units of vitamin A), 80 milligrams of zinc as zinc oxide, and two milligrams of copper as cupric oxide. Copper was added to the AREDS formulation containing zinc to prevent copper deficiency anemia, a condition associated with high levels of zinc intake.
Who should take the AREDS formulation?
People who are at high risk for developing advanced AMD should consider taking the formulation. You are at high risk for developing advanced AMD if you have either:
1. Intermediate AMD in one or both eyes.
2. Advanced AMD (dry or wet) in one eye but not the other eye.
Your eye care professional can tell you if you have AMD, its stage, and your risk for developing the advanced form.
The AREDS formulation is not a cure for AMD. It will not restore vision already lost from the disease. However, it may delay the onset of advanced AMD. It may help people who are at high risk for developing advanced AMD keep their vision.
Can people with early stage AMD take the AREDS formulation to help prevent the disease from progressing to the intermediate stage?
There is no apparent need for those diagnosed with early stage AMD to take the AREDS formulation. The study did not find that the formulation provided a benefit to those with early stage AMD. If you have early stage AMD, a comprehensive dilated eye exam every year can help determine if the disease is progressing. If early stage AMD progresses to the intermediate stage, discuss taking the formulation with your doctor.
Can diet alone provide the same high levels of antioxidants and zinc as the AREDS formulation?
No. The high levels of vitamins and minerals are difficult to achieve from diet alone. However, previous studies have suggested that people who have diets rich in green leafy vegetables have a lower risk of developing AMD.
Can a daily multivitamin alone provide the same high levels of antioxidants and zinc as the AREDS formulation?
No. The formulation's levels of antioxidants and zinc are considerably higher than the amounts in any daily multivitamin.
If you are already taking daily multivitamins and your doctor suggests you take the high-dose AREDS formulation, be sure to review all your vitamin supplements with your doctor before you begin. Because multivitamins contain many important vitamins not found in the AREDS formulation, you may want to take a multivitamin along with the AREDS formulation. For example, people with osteoporosis need to be particularly concerned about taking vitamin D, which is not in the AREDS formulation.
How is wet AMD treated?
There are two main treatments for wet AMD: laser surgery and VEGF injections. Neither treatment is a cure for wet AMD. Each treatment may slow the rate of vision decline or stop further vision loss. The disease and loss of vision may progress despite treatment.
What can I do if I already have lost some vision from AMD? If you have lost some sight from AMD, don't be afraid to use your eyes for reading, watching TV, and other routine activities. Normal use of your eyes will not cause further damage to your vision.
If you have lost some sight from AMD, ask your eye care professional about low vision services and devices that may help you make the most of your remaining vision. Ask for a referral to a specialist in low vision. Many community organizations and agencies offer information about low vision counseling, training, and other special services for people with visual impairments. A nearby school of medicine or optometry may provide low vision services.
What research is being done?
The National Eye Institute is conducting and supporting a number of studies to learn more about AMD.
For example, scientists are:
This research should provide better ways to detect, treat, and prevent vision loss in people with AMD.
What can I do to protect my vision?
If you detect any changes, schedule an eye exam immediately.
Here is what an Amsler grid normally looks like.
This is how an Amsler grid might look like if abnormal. Contact your EYEMD immediately if anything is different than what you see normally.
Can my lifestyle make a difference?
Your lifestyle can play a role in reducing your risk of developing AMD.
What should I ask my eye care professional?
You can protect yourself against vision loss by working in partnership with your eye care professional. Ask questions and get the information you need to take care of yourself.
What are some questions to ask?
About my eye disease or disorder...
About my treatment...
About my tests...
Today, patients take an active role in their health care. Be an active patient about your eye care.
For more information about age-related macular degeneration, you may wish to contact:
AMD Alliance International
1929 Bayview Avenue
CANADA M4G 3E8
American Health Assistance Foundation*
22512 Gateway Center Drive
Clarksburg, MD 20871
Macular Degeneration Partnership
8733 Beverly Boulevard, Suite 201
Los Angeles, CA 90048
Association for Macular Diseases
210 E. 64th Street
New York, NY 10021
National Eye Institute (NEI)
31 Center Drive MSC 2510
Bethesda, MD 20892-2510
For more information about low vision services and programs, you may wish to contact:
American Academy of Ophthalmology
P.O. Box 7424
San Francisco, CA 94120-7424
Council of Citizens with Low Vision International
National Association for Visually Handicapped
22 W. 21st Street, 6th Floor
New York, NY 10010-6493